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Clematis 'Fryderyk Chopin'

There are known over three thousand of large-flowered Clematis varieties, among which a few dozen are of Polish origin. More than a dozen of them have gained worldwide appraisal and recognition and are cultivated in millions of gardens all over the world in many countries in Europe, both Americas, Asia, Australia and Oceania, e.g.: Clematis 'Niobe' (W. Noll), Clematis 'Generał Sikorski' (W. Noll), Clematis 'Polish Spirit' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Jan Paweł II' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Błękitny Anioł' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Kardynał Wyszyński' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Warszawska Nike' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Kacper' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Westerplatte' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Emilia Plater' (S. Franczak), Clematis 'Monte Cassino' (S. Franczak) i Clematis 'Matka Urszula Ledóchowska'(S.Franczak).

Among new beautiful Polish cultivars, raised by S.Franczak, receiving international approval and awards are: Clematis 'Anna Karolina' - long-flowering, with white flowers and purple anthers, Clematis 'Bałtyk' with purple-lilac flowers; Clematis 'Dominika' with pale blue flowers; Clematis 'Dorota' with violet-blue flowers; Clematis 'Fryderyk Chopin' - gray-blue flowers with curvy edged tepals; Clematis 'Matka Siedliska' - large white flowers - double on previous year's wood in May-June, single, slightly pinkish on new growth in July-August; Clematis 'Solina' - long and profusely flowering with lilac-rose flowers; Clematis 'Sympatia' - large, rosy-mauve, wavy edged flowers and Clematis 'Syrena' with pruple-red flowers. The number of Polish Clematis cultivar is constantly growing. In 2001 Sz. Marczyński registered Clematis 'Barbara' with intense pink flowers; Clematis 'Hania'- velvety purple-red tepals with a pale pink margin; Clematis 'Julka' - velvety violet flowers with a deep-purple-red central bar. They were awarded gold, bronze and silver medals respectively at the Plantarium 2002 Trade Show in Boskoop in Holland.
In 2004 Sz. Marczyński also registered 'Jerzy Popiełuszko', with silky white flowers, 'Lech Wałęsa' with large, bule-violet flowers with a paler bar, 'Solidarność' with bright red flowers and 'Polonez' with wine red flowers, which won acclaim at the Plantarium 2005 Trade Show in Boskoop, Holland. 'Jerzy Popiełuszko' and 'Lech Wałęsa' were awarded gold medals, and 'Solidarność' and 'Polonez' received silver and bronze medals respectively. 'Bieszczady', 'Mazowsze' and 'Mazury', registered and introduced to the market in 2006, are the newest Polish cultivars.

Encycloapedia of plants comprises short characteristics of over one hundred of the most valuable and popular large-flowered, herbaceous and perennial clematis. It's worthwhile to remember that the majority of double flowered cultivars produce double flowers only during the early blooming in May-June, on previous year's wood, whereas flowers borne on new shoots are single, and may have a slightly different color. The prominent exceptions include Clematis 'Kiri Te Kanawa', Clematis 'Blue Light', Clematis 'Multi Blue' and Clematis 'Purpurea Plena Elegans' from the Viticella Group, that bear double flowers on both old and new growth.

Herbaceous clematis form an interesting, though not widely spread, group of climbers. Though of smaller flower stature, in full bloom masses of flowers give a spectacular display. Most of the varieties (e.g. Clematis alpina, Clematis macropetala, the Atragene Group and Clematis montana) start blossoming in late April - early May, that is 2 to 4 weeks earlier than the earliest flowering large-flowered hybrids. Many have lower growth and culture requirements, for instance cultivars from the Atragene Group, the Tangutica Group and the Vitalba Group have hardy stems, while clematis from the Tangutica Group will tolerate poorer soil and much drier conditions than any other varieties from the genus.

    • The Atragene Group assembles cultivars created by selective breeding and crosses between the mountain clematis species flowering in early spring i.e.: Clematis alpina, Clematis chiisanensis, Clematis faurieri, Clematis koreana, Clematis macropetala, Clematis ochotensis, Clematis sibirica and Clematis turcestanica. They grow up to 2-3,5 m. Charming, though small flowers are borne on old wood during April-June, and occasionally in summer, on new growth, during July-August. In summer and autumn plants carry most decorative silky seedheads. No pruning is required, but if they grow out of the alloted space, you may cut it back any time after bloom is spent in the autumn. They thrive best in neutral or slightly alkaline moderately moist and well drained soils, in semi-shade. Ideal for growing over low fences or scrambling over rocks and old stumps, clambering through shrubs and trees. They make good ground cover and are suitable for container growing.
      Cultivars: 'Albina Plena', 'Ballet Skirt', 'Betina', 'Blue Bird', 'Brunette', 'Cecile', chiisanensis 'Lemon Bells', 'Constance', 'Frances Rivis', 'Frankie', 'Jan Lindmark', 'Lagoon', 'Maidwell Hall', 'Markham's Pink', ochotensis, 'Pamela Jackman', 'Pink Flamingo', 'Purple Spider', 'Rosy O'Grady', 'Ruby', sibirica, 'White Swan', 'Willy'.
    • .

Clematis sibirica Atragene Group
    • Clematis crispa - Curly Clematis A climbing perennial species native to the southeast parts of the USA. Very unusual bell-shaped nodding flowers are borne on long stalks. Pale blue to violet-blue sepals have recurving tips. Slightly fragrant flowers are followed by decorative shapely seedheads that, with their pointed tips, bear a passing resemblance to a hedgehog. Requires hard pruning. It looks particularly striking when planted in a sunny spot and allowed to clamber through small deciduous or coniferous shrubs. Suitable for container growing. Recommended especially to garden connoisseurs.


    • Clematis flammula. A strong-growing climber, up to 5 m high, forming a dense tangle of glabrous stems clothed with bright green leaves. From July to October loose panicles of small (3 cm across), pure white, star-shaped, sweetly scented flowers are abundantly scattered over the whole plant, followed in autumn and winter by silky seedheads. Best grown in sunny, warm and sheltered positions.


    • Clematis florida .A unique species with very original flowers: white with a greenish stripe on the reverse of the sepals and dark purple-black stamens. In autumn flowers turn green. Blossoms are produced only on new wood from June to September. Since it's not fully hardy, it's best grown in a warm sunny and wind sheltered position e.g. on a wall facing south. It also requires good protection in winter. Thrives best in moist well drained soil. Best suited for cultivation in containers that are transferred in winter to a cold room with the temperature between 0oC and 5oC.
      The most valuable cultivars are: Clematis florida var. flore-pleno with double white flowers and Clematis florida var. sieboldiana with creamy-white flowers and a deep red-purple central eye.


    • Clematis japonica - Japanese Clematis. A Japanese variety with most unusual nodding flowers: shiny, bell-shaped, deep brown-red in color, borne single or in panicles on long stalks. No pruning required. Thrives in warm sunny positions, sheltered from cold winds. Best planted among other plants and allowed to meander through small deciduous or coniferous shrubs. Recommended especially to garden connoisseurs.


    • Clematis montana var. rubens - Anemone clematis; Indian's virgin's bower. A popular free-flowering species of vigorous, often rampant growth, with stems up to 8 m long. During May and June a mass of rosy-mauve flowers, abundantly scattered over the whole plant, can last as long as a few weeks. Unfortunately flower buds and sometimes stems tend to freeze during severe winters. Another very attractive cultivar of this species is 'Freda'. Although less vigorous, it's appreciated for its lovely cherry-rose flowers and purple-green leaves.
      ph char clematis flammula kwiaty
      Clematis flammula
       Clematis montana var. wilsonii is a vigorous grower blooming in white from June till July. Aforementioned varieties can be grown only in sheltered positions, in a milder microclimate.


    • Clematis rehderiana. A species native to west China. Unusual, sweetly scented bell-shaped flowers of pale yellow with recurving tips are borne in large bunches during September - October. Leaves are composed of 5-9 leaflets with attractive prominent veining. Hard pruning recommended. Thrives best in well drained soil in full sun. Particularly useful for growing over fences, nettings, trellises, arbors, pergolas and other garden supports, or medium sized trees and shrubs. Recommended especially to garden connoisseurs.


    • Clematis tangutica - Golden Clematis. A delightful, easily grown climber that grows up to 3-5 m. Nodding, yellow campanulate flowers, composed of four tepals, are borne on long, downy stalks during summer (June-August), the later ones intermingled with decorative silky seedheads. At the end of September the plant retreats into winter dormancy and the leaves wither.
      Similar in looks, but more valuable are cultivars included in the Tangutica Group (they tend to have bigger flowers, bloom more profusely and over a longer period while the foliage can stay green even up to the end of October), created by crosses between Clematis tangutica, Clematis orientalis and Clematis intricata, Clematis ispahanica, Clematis ladakhiana, Clematis serratifolia, Clematis tibetiana. They are healthy, hardy plants with low requirements - they tolerate draught but will perform badly in waterlogged soil. Excellent for growing up walls and wire nettings and very effective at screening unattractive views. They are suitable for all kinds of gardens as well as for growing in public places. The most valuable cultivars include: 'Anita' - masses of white flowers in summer and autumn, it reaches up to 4,5 m; 'Aureolin' - large elongated bright yellow flowers, grows up to 2-3 m, 'Bill MacKenzie' - the most vigorous of the lot, with yellow, partially open flowers from early summer until first frosts and green foliage from April to the beginning of November; 'Grace' with creamy-white flowers, up to 3,5 m; 'Helios' - pale yellow open flowers, grows up to 3 m. 'Lambton Park' is the most attractive and the longest-flowering cultivar from the Tangutica Group - vigorous (up to 4-5 m), with the bulged, slightly open deep yellow flowers. Reaching up to 5 m 'Last Dance' (syn. 'Orange Peel') has greenish-blue foliage and orange-yellow flowers developing in autumn.


    • Clematis terniflora - Sweet Autumn Clematis. A vigorous Japanese cultivar, often forming a dense tangle of growth. Very popular in the United States. A late flowering variety bearing during September-November a profusion of small, star-shaped, sweetly scented white flowers. Requires a sunny, hot position with a tall, strong support - it may not flower at all during cool summers or when grown in a shaded position.


Clematis Texensis Group 'Etoile Rose'
    • The Texensis Group - obtained by crossbreeding Clematis texensis (Scarlet Clematis) with large-flowered varieties. Cultivars from this group grow up to 3 m and bear unusual, shaped like lily-flowered tulips on new growth from June to August. As with all perennials, their previous year's shoots tend to die down completely, so the plants should be hard-pruned close to the ground in March. New stems will grow from the underground part. Best grown in a sunny, warm and sheltered position. Vulnerable to attack from powdery mildew.
      Cultivars: 'Duchess of Albany', 'Etoile Rose', 'Gravetye Beauty', 'Odoriba', 'Princess Diana', 'Sir Trevor Lawrence'.


    •  Clematis x triternata' Rubromarginata'. A vigorous, slender-stemmed climber, up to 5 m. Fragrant flowers, up to 3-4 cm across, are pale violet-pink with a white eye and reddish-violet margins. In full bloom, during July-August, masses of blossoms give effect of dark billowing clouds. Thrives best in a sunny, warm and sheltered position.


    • Clematis vitalba - Traveler's Joy or Old Man's Beard. A rampant, up to 10 m, familiar climber. Masses of small (2 cm across) creamy-white flowers, borne in panicles, in July-September, followed by glistening, silky seedheads that remain on the plant throughout the winter. Native to Europe, a fully hardy plant, immune to diseases. The Cultivars comprising the Vitalba Group were obtained through crossbreeding Traveler's Joy with other species. The most valuable of them is arguably Clematis 'Paul Farges' ('SUMMER SNOW') which is a hybrid of Clematis vitalba and Clematis potanini. It's a charming, very vigorous (up to 7 m), almost rampant cultivar with attractive dark green foliage persisting well into early November. In summer and autumn small (4-5 cm across), star-shaped, slightly scented creamy white flowers are abundantly scattered over the whole plant. A healthy, very hardy clematis with low requirements, particularly useful for covering tall fences or unsightly buildings. Grow in a sunny spot to get the best of the scent.


Perennial Clematis. These perennial species with raised, non-clinging stems, similar to those of a climbing rose are a valuable yet still little known Clematis group.

    • Clematis heracleifolia - Tube Clematis. A herbaceous perennial with raised, stiff stems, up to 1 m. Small (2-5 cm across), tubular, sweetly scented, blue-mauve flowers are produced from July to September in large clusters similar to that of a hyacinth, located in the leaf axils. Ideal for scrambling through herbaceous perennials and shrubs. Cultivars created by crosses between this species and other clematis comprise the Heracleifolia Group. The most valuable among them are Clematis 'Praecox', 'Mrs. Robert Brydon' and 'New Love'.
      Clematis jouiniana 'Praecox'. Raised as a hybrid of Traveler's Joy (Clematis vitalba) and Tube Clematis (Clematis heracleifolia), it's the best ground cover clematis that makes a welcome addition to every garden. Its large dark green leaves, trifoliate with coarsely toothed leaflets, spread densely over the ground. Stems grow rampantly (3-4 m of annual growth), and in just a few weeks cover the ground with a thick carpet, thus inhibiting weeds and preventing soil from excessive heating and drying out. In June and July the plant covers with masses of small, 3-4 cm across, pinkish-mauve flowers, gathered in large panicles. It's sufficiently hardy. The pruning should be hard or moderate, depending on the area to cover. If you are limited by space you can use a less rampant 'Mrs. Robert Brydon'. Growing up to 2 m annually it has violet-blue flowers and lustrous deep green leaves that are bigger than those of 'Praecox'. 'New Love' PBR is characterized by its upright compact growth habit and violet-blue, fragrant flowers.


    • Clematis integrifolia - Solitary Clematis. A slender-stemmed, scrambling perennial with stems up to 60 cm. From June to September the plant covers with bell-shaped nodding violet flowers with recurving

      Clematis Integrifolia Group 'Hanajima'
      tepals. Depending on a variety, flowers can be blue, violet, white or pink.

      It's a hardy perennial that dies down to the ground each year and survives the winter on food stored in specialized underground stems. Dead stems should be cut out in early spring. As a support you can use neighboring plants, bamboo sticks or stakes, or alternatively you can let it trail along the ground Hybrids produced by crosses between this species and other clematis form the Integrifolia Group. Though still little known, they are very valuable and attractive on the basis of their long and profuse flowering, healthiness hardiness and easy culture. They adapt well to all the familiar garden uses and can be successfully grown on balconies and terraces but also in public places. They are non-clinging in habit with the stems, depending on a variety, between 40 to 200 cm long,but will meander through a border and amongst existing plants in a delightful manner, adding interest to shrubs that have finished flowering (e.g. azaleas that flower beautifully but shortly in early spring, and afterwards they form a monotonous mass of green until the autumn when its leaves variegate), or providing a contrast of color and form. Clematis from this group are charming companions for border roses and other shrubs, invaluable for creating groups and borders. When grown without support, they will spread out over the ground creating attractive covers.
      The following list comprises some of the most valuable hybrids: 'Alba', 'Alionushka', x aromatica, 'Arabella' (1994), 'Blue Boy', 'Bluish Violet', x durandii, x diversifolia 'Hendersonii', 'Hakuree', 'Hanajima', 'Inspiration', 'Juuli', 'Lord Herschell', 'Olgae', 'Pamiat Serdtsa', 'Rooguchi', 'Rosea'.


    • Clematis mandshurica - A herbaceous perennial reaching up to 1,5 m, and forming masses of small (1,5 cm across), star-shaped and slightly scented white flowers, from July to September. Grow in a sunny spot to bring out the best scent.


  • Clematis recta - Ground Clematis. A Polish herbaceous perennial, growing up to 1 m, with frail stems crawling along the ground. During July and August it produces abundant masses of small (1,5 cm across), creamy white, sweetly scented flowers. Suitable for growing on perennial borders and scrambling through shrubs.

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